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Measure: CMS165

Controlling High Blood Pressure

Measure Versions

eMeasure Code Measure Year Full Version Number Title
CMS165v12 2024 12.0.000 Controlling High Blood Pressure
CMS165v11 2023 11 Controlling High Blood Pressure
CMS165v10 2022 10.0.000 Controlling High Blood Pressure
CMS165v9 2021 9.2.000 Controlling High Blood Pressure
CMS165v8 2020 8.5.000 Controlling High Blood Pressure
CMS165v7 2019 7.3.000 Controlling High Blood Pressure
CMS165v6 2018 6.2.000 Controlling High Blood Pressure
CMS165v5 2017 5.0.000 Controlling High Blood Pressure

Description

Percentage of patients 18-85 years of age who had a diagnosis of essential hypertension starting before and continuing into, or starting during the first six months of the measurement period, and whose most recent blood pressure was adequately controlled (<140/90mmHg) during the measurement period

Guidance

In reference to the numerator element, only blood pressure readings performed by a clinician or a remote monitoring device are acceptable for numerator compliance with this measure. This includes blood pressures taken in person by a clinician and blood pressures measured remotely by electronic monitoring devices capable of transmitting the blood pressure data to the clinician. Blood pressure readings taken by a remote monitoring device and conveyed by the patient to the clinician are also acceptable. It is the clinician’s responsibility and discretion to confirm the remote monitoring device used to obtain the blood pressure is considered acceptable and reliable and whether the blood pressure reading is considered accurate before documenting it in the patient’s medical record. Do not include BP readings: -Taken during an acute inpatient stay or an ED visit -Taken on the same day as a diagnostic test or diagnostic or therapeutic procedure that requires a change in diet or change in medication on or one day before the day of the test or procedure, with the exception of fasting blood tests. -Taken by the patient using a non-digital device such as with a manual blood pressure cuff and a stethoscope. If no blood pressure is recorded during the measurement period, the patient's blood pressure is assumed "not controlled." If there are multiple blood pressure readings on the same day, use the lowest systolic and the lowest diastolic reading as the most recent blood pressure reading. This eCQM is a patient-based measure. This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.5. Please refer to the eCQI resource center (https://ecqi.healthit.gov/qdm) for more information on the QDM.

Patient Group Definitions

Group Description Instructions Links
Initial PopulationPatients 18-85 years of age who had a visit and diagnosis of essential hypertension starting before and continuing into, or starting during the first six months of the measurement period.Webchart Instructions
DenominatorEquals Initial PopulationWebchart Instructions
Denominator ExclusionsPatients with evidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD), dialysis or renal transplant before or during the measurement period. Also exclude patients with a diagnosis of pregnancy during the measurement period. Exclude patients who are in hospice care for any part of the measurement period. Exclude patients 66 and older who are living long term in an institution for more than 90 consecutive days during the measurement period. Exclude patients 66 and older with an indication of frailty for any part of the measurement period who meet any of the following criteria: - Advanced illness with two outpatient encounters during the measurement period or the year prior - OR advanced illness with one inpatient encounter during the measurement period or the year prior - OR taking dementia medications during the measurement period or the year prior Exclude patients 81 and older with an indication of frailty for any part of the measurement period. Exclude patients receiving palliative care during the measurement period.Webchart Instructions
NumeratorPatients whose most recent blood pressure is adequately controlled (systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg) during the measurement periodWebchart Instructions
Numerator ExclusionsNot ApplicableWebchart Instructions
Denominator ExceptionsNone

Details

Full eMeasure Code eMeasure Identifier Measure Year Version NQF # GUID
CMS165v10 165 2022 10.0.000 Not Applicable abdc37cc-bac6-4156-9b91-d1be2c8b7268
Steward Developer Endorsed By
National Committee for Quality Assurance National Committee for Quality Assurance
Scoring Method Measure Type Stratification Risk Adjustment
Proportion INTERMEDIATE OUTCOME None None

Rate Aggregation

None

Improvement Notation

Higher score indicates better quality

Rationale

High blood pressure (HBP), also known as hypertension, is when the pressure in blood vessels is higher than normal (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020). The causes of hypertension are multiple and multifaceted and can be based on genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, being overweight and obese, sodium intake, potassium intake, physical activity, and alcohol use. High blood pressure is common; according to the American Heart Association, between 2013-2016, approximately 116.4 million US adults >= 20 years of age had HBP and the prevalence of hypertension among US adults 65 and older was 78.2 percent (Benjamin et al, 2019). HBP, known as the “silent killer,” increases risks of heart disease and stroke which are two of the leading causes of death in the U.S. (Yoon, Fryar, & Carroll, 2015). A person who has HBP is four times more likely to die from a stroke and three times more likely to die from heart disease (CDC, 2012). The National Vital Statistics Systems reported that in 2014 there were approximately 73,300 deaths directly due to HBP and 410,624 deaths with any mention of HBP (CDC, 2014). Between 2006 and 2016 the number of deaths due to HBP rose by 46.3 percent (Benjamin et al, 2019). . Managing and treating HBP would reduce cardiovascular disease mortality for males and females by 30.4 percent and 38.0 percent, respectively (Patel et al., 2015). The estimated annual average direct and indirect cost of HBP from 2014 to 2015 was $55.9 billion (Benjamin et al, 2019). Total direct costs of HBP is projected to increase to $220.9 billion by 2035 (Benjamin et al, 2019). A study on cost-effectiveness on treating hypertension found that controlling HBP in patients with cardiovascular disease and systolic blood pressures of >= 160 mm Hg could be effective and cost-saving (Moran, 2015). Many studies have shown that controlling high blood pressure reduces cardiovascular events and mortality. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) investigated the impact of obtaining a SBP goal of <120 mm Hg compared to a SBP goal of <140 mm Hg among patients 50 and older with established cardiovascular disease and found that the patients with the former goal had reduced cardiovascular events and mortality (SPRINT Research Group et al., 2015). Controlling HBP will significantly reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease mortality and lead to better health outcomes like reduction of heart attacks, stroke, and kidney disease (James et al., 2014). Thus, the relationship between the measure (control of hypertension) and the long-term clinical outcomes listed is well established.

Clinical Recommendation Statement

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2015) recommends screening for high blood pressure in adults age 18 years and older. This is a grade A recommendation.  

American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2017) 

-For adults with confirmed hypertension and known CVD or 10-year ASCVD event risk of 10% or higher, a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg is recommended (Level of evidence: B-R (for systolic blood pressures), Level of evidence: C-EO (for diastolic blood pressure)) 

-For adults with confirmed hypertension, without additional markers of increased CVD risk, a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg may be reasonable (Note: clinical trial evidence is strongest for a target blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg in this population. However, observational studies suggest that these individuals often have a high lifetime risk and would benefit from blood pressure control earlier in life) (Level of evidence: B-NR (for systolic blood pressure), Level of evidence: C-EO (for diastolic blood pressure)) 

American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians (2017):   

-Initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment in some adults aged 60 years or older at high cardiovascular risk, based on individualized assessment, to achieve a target systolic blood pressure of less than 140 mmHg (Grade: weak recommendation, Quality of evidence: low) 

-Initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment in adults aged 60 years or older with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack to achieve a target systolic blood pressure of less than 140 mmHg to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke (Grade: weak recommendation, Quality of evidence: moderate) 

American Diabetes Association (2019): 

-For individuals with diabetes and hypertension at higher cardiovascular risk (existing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk >15%), a blood pressure target of <130/80 mmHg may be appropriate, if it can be safely attained (Level of evidence: C)-For individuals with diabetes and hypertension at lower risk for cardiovascular disease (10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk <15%), treat to a blood pressure target of <140/90 mmHg (Level of evidence: A)

Definition

None

Transmission Format

TBD

Applicable Value Sets

Category Value Set OID
Diagnosis Chronic Kidney Disease, Stage 5 2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1002
Diagnosis End Stage Renal Disease 2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.353
Diagnosis Essential Hypertension 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.104.12.1011
Diagnosis Frailty Diagnosis 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.113.12.1074
Diagnosis Kidney Transplant Recipient 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.109.12.1029
Diagnosis Pregnancy 2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.378
Encounter, Performed Acute Inpatient 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1083
Encounter, Performed Annual Wellness Visit 2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1240
Encounter, Performed Care Services in Long-Term Residential Facility 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1014
Encounter, Performed Emergency Department Visit 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1010
Encounter, Performed Encounter Inpatient 2.16.840.1.113883.3.666.5.307
Encounter, Performed ESRD Monthly Outpatient Services 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.109.12.1014
Encounter, Performed Frailty Encounter 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1088
Encounter, Performed Home Healthcare Services 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1016
Encounter, Performed Nonacute Inpatient 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1084
Encounter, Performed Nursing Facility Visit 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1012
Encounter, Performed Observation 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1086
Encounter, Performed Office Visit 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1001
Encounter, Performed Online Assessments 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1089
Encounter, Performed Outpatient 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1087
Encounter, Performed Palliative Care Encounter 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1090
Encounter, Performed Preventive Care Services - Established Office Visit, 18 and Up 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1025
Encounter, Performed Preventive Care Services-Initial Office Visit, 18 and Up 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1023
Encounter, Performed Telephone Visits 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1080
Intervention, Order Hospice care ambulatory 2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1108.15
Intervention, Performed Hospice care ambulatory 2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1108.15
Intervention, Performed Palliative Care Intervention 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.198.12.1135
Medication, Active Dementia Medications 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.196.12.1510
Patient Characteristic Ethnicity Ethnicity 2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.837
Patient Characteristic Payer Payer 2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591
Patient Characteristic Race Race 2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.836
Patient Characteristic Sex ONC Administrative Sex 2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1
Procedure, Performed Dialysis Services 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.109.12.1013
Procedure, Performed Kidney Transplant 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.109.12.1012
Symptom Frailty Symptom 2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.113.12.1075

References

CITATIONAmerican Diabetes Association. (2019). 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes Care, 42(Suppl. 1), S103-S123. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-S010
CITATIONBenjamin EJ et al., Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2019 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019;139:e56–e528. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000659
CITATIONCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Vital signs: Getting blood pressure under control. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/hypertension/index.html
CITATIONCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. (2020). Facts About Hypertension. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm
CITATIONCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Mortality multiple cause micro-data files, 2014: public-use data file and documentation: NHLBI tabulations. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/Vitalstatsonline.htm#Mortality_Multiple.
CITATIONCrim, M. T., Yoon, S. S., Ortiz, E., et al. (2012). National surveillance definitions for hypertension prevalence and control among adults. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2012, ;5(3), :343-–351. doi: 10.1161/ CIRCOUTCOMES.111.963439.
CITATIONMoran, A. E., Odden, M. C., Thanataveerat, A., et al.Tzong KY, Rasmussen PW, Guzman D, Williams L, Bibbins-Domingo K, Coxson PG, Goldman L. (2015). Cost-effectiveness of hypertension therapy according to 2014 guidelines. [published correction appears in N Engl J. Med. 2015;372:1677]. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015 ;372, 447-455. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1406751. [published correction appears on page 1677]
CITATIONPatel, S. A., Winkel, M., Ali, M. K., et al. (2015). Cardiovascular mortality associated with 5 leading risk factors: National and state preventable fractions estimated from survey data. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163(4), 245-253. doi: 10.7326/M14-1753
CITATIONQaseem, A., Wilt, T. J., Rich, R., et al. (2017). Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in adults aged 60 years or older to higher versus lower blood pressure targets: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(6), 430-437. Retrieved from https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2598413/pharmacologic-treatment-hypertension-adults-aged-60-years-older-higher-versus
CITATIONSPRINT Research Group, Wright, J. T., Jr., Williamson, J. D., et al. (2015). A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(22), 2103–2116.
CITATIONU.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2015). Screening for high blood pressure in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163(10), 778-787. Retrieved from https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2456129/screening-high-blood-pressure-adults-u-s-preventive-services-task
CITATIONWhelton, P. K., Carey, R. M., Aronow, W. S., et al. (2017). Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000065
CITATIONYoon, S. S., Fryar, C. D., & Carroll, M. D. (2015). Hypertension prevalence and control among adults: United States, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief No. 220. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
CITATIONFarley TA, Dalal MA, Mostashari F, Frieden TR. Deaths preventable in the US by improvements in the use of clinical preventive services. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38:600-9. Retrieved from https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(10)00207-2/fulltext

Disclaimer

The performance Measure is not a clinical guideline and does not establish a standard of medical care, and has not been tested for all potential applications. THE MEASURE AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Due to technical limitations, registered trademarks are indicated by (R) or [R] and unregistered trademarks are indicated by (TM) or [TM].

Copyright

This Physician Performance Measure (Measure) and related data specifications are owned and were developed by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA). NCQA is not responsible for any use of the Measure. NCQA makes no representations, warranties, or endorsement about the quality of any organization or physician that uses or reports performance measures and NCQA has no liability to anyone who relies on such measures or specifications. NCQA holds a copyright in the Measure. The Measure can be reproduced and distributed, without modification, for noncommercial purposes (e.g., use by healthcare providers in connection with their practices) without obtaining approval from NCQA. Commercial use is defined as the sale, licensing, or distribution of the Measure for commercial gain, or incorporation of the Measure into a product or service that is sold, licensed or distributed for commercial gain. All commercial uses or requests for modification must be approved by NCQA and are subject to a license at the discretion of NCQA. (C) 2012-2020 National Committee for Quality Assurance. All Rights Reserved.  

Limited proprietary coding is contained in the Measure specifications for user convenience. Users of proprietary code sets should obtain all necessary licenses from the owners of the code sets. NCQA disclaims all liability for use or accuracy of any third party codes contained in the specifications. 

CPT(R) contained in the Measure specifications is copyright 2004-2020 American Medical Association. LOINC(R) copyright 2004-2020 Regenstrief Institute, Inc. This material contains SNOMED Clinical Terms(R) (SNOMED CT[R]) copyright 2004-2020 International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation. ICD-10 copyright 2020 World Health Organization. All Rights Reserved.

Source: https://ecqi.healthit.gov/ecqm/measures/cms165v1